Ultras in Indonesia: conflict, diversification, activism
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Ultras play a vital role in the life of Indonesian football. Ultra fandom has emerged as a highly visual, highly spectacular, and frequently violent form of fandom in post-reformasi Indonesia. Ultra fan groups are overwhelmingly made up of young, urban men who dedicate much of the leisure time to supporting their club – whether through being at the stadium, creating on tifos, or through social-media campaigns. Supporter groups such as PSIM’s Brajamusti are linked to the cultural and political realities of everyday life in Yogyakarta. While the Surabaya-based Bonek are engaged in an ongoing struggle against FIFA and Indonesia’s football federation. The Solo-based Pasoepati are a more recent fan group who have supported several Solo-based teams. This article draws on fieldwork carried out between August and December 2014. The article explores how the different fan groups interact with each other with their city and how they imagine an improved ‘soccer-scape’ in Indonesia.