THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY FOR REGIONAL TRANSPORTATION PLANNING: Freight Transportation Model in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
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There is a parallel evolution of a political economy and the transportation system either in developed or developing countries. The growth of economic will increase the number of ton-km of freight transportation. As flows of freight and their impacts increase, transportation planners, managers, and operators have a more concern to develop better methods for tracking and monitoring the flows of commodities and analysing the impacts of these flows to transportation infrastructures. In addition, it is more realized that inter-modality may provide a key towards a better performing transport system because of environmental concerns, reasons of efficiency and benefits of coordination of modes to cope with growing transportation flows. to the This research aims to formulate a methodology for regional transportation planning in order to achieve an efficient regional freight mobility which regard specific characteristics of the region. Specifically, the objectives of this research are: a) to identify significant factors influencing the efficiency of regional freight transportation by considering the specific characteristics of the region; b) to formulate the methodology for a regional freight transportation planning by employing the concept of inter-modality and spatial models in order to achieve an efficient transportation system;and c) to identify the type and location of appropriate transportation infrastructures to enhance sustainable freight mobility. The existing freight transportation planning methods are generally adopted from the conventional four-stage model. This research attempts to look in depth the relationship of economics activities of commodities toward export, spatial data of commodities related to the economics’ activities (resources, factories, and outlets), transportation data (infrastructures, modes, and services), and government regulations, in formulating the method of freight transportation planning by considering inter-modality concept, to produce an efficient freight movement to enhance sustainable mobility and economic development in regional scale. Furthermore, this research utilizes freight network simulation for modelling intermodal regional freight transportation using behavioural freight transportation model and generalized costs as the efficiency indicator of optimum transportation system, by utilizing ArcGIS software as the tool. The first methodology for regional transportation planning consists of seven stages: 1) selection of commodity using regional income (RI) model; 2) qualitative survey on production and goods transportation of selected commodities; 3) mapping of spatial location of selected commodities using ArcGIS by considering the shortest route; 4) transport modeling of selected commodities using ArcGIS; 5) qualitative survey on shippers and carriers; 6) identification of type and location of transport infrastructures; and 7) model calibration and validation. However, it is then developed into ten stages as the followings: 1) selection of commodity using regional income (RI) model; 2) observation surveys and initial data collection; 3) revealed preference surveys on commodity production and distribution, 4) construction of GIS geo-database using ArcGIS; 5) spatial modeling by simulating and mapping of geographical location of selected commodity using ArcGIS; 6) spatial model validation; 7) transportation modeling of selected commodity using ArcGIS; 8) checking of generalized cost (GC); 9) identification issues/ bottlenecks (type and location of transport infrastructures); and 10) applying alternatives/scenarios. The existing freight transportation planning models give more attention to the transportation modeling where the location of industries or economic activities is considered as exogenous data. As a new innovation, the methodology of freight transportation planning that is developed in this research can produce more realistic/practical transportation model because the locations of economics activities that generate freight transportation are considered in the model (endogenous) and can be changed dynamically over time. offers a more efficient stage of transportation modeling where distribution, modal split, and route assignment models are conducted at the same time. However, this method faces great challenges in data collection and database construction because it requires large data to be formatted and converted into GIS database. To support this research, the observation survey for origin-destination and Revealed Preference (RP) survey both to shippers and carrier in Central Kalimantan Province have been conducted. These surveys were intended to obtain primary data regarding the transportation and logistics chain of CPO. Vehicle characteristics obtained from RP survey for carriers are type and number of vehicles, loaded weight, and speed. The transportation attributes obtained from the survey and used in the modelling are total travel time and costs. The result of spatial and transportation modelling by utilizing network analysis of ArcGIS in 2010, 2011, and 2012 showed that intermodal transportation of road and river has the lowest generalized cost. However, the model obtained in 2013, which considered planned railways, has shown that intermodal road-rail-river is the best one. Therefore, provisions of special ports for CPO and road access from factory to the ports are needed to support the efficiency of CPO mobility. In addition, an alternative of planned railways can also be applied to enhance sustainable mobility CPO transportation in Central Kalimantan Province.