POLITIK KEKERABATAN DALAM POLITIK LOKAL DI SULAWESI SELATAN PADA ERA REFORMASI (STUDI TENTANG REKRUTMEN POLITIK PADA PARTAI GOLKAR, PARTAI AMANAT NASIONAL DAN PARTAI DEMOKRAT SULAWESI SELATAN TAHUN 2009)
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This dissertation examines the existing political dynasty in South Sulawesi’s local politics by analyzing key factors that influence the development of political dynasty in political recruitments in Golkar, PAN and Democratic Party. It focuses on the interaction between candidates from political dynasty and organizational political party in political recruitment process. The analysis utilizes three main theories, namely Robert Michels’ iron law of oligarchy theory, O’Dwyer’s theory on party institutionalization and Almond and Verba’s theory supported by Prewitt and Martinez about political socialization. Based on the data and in depth interviews gathered during the writing process, the dissertation finds several key important points. First, not all political families are indication of political dynasty. Second, political dynasty is defined by four key factors, namely the root cause of political dynasty, political legacy, cultural factor, and political opportunity., Third, based on the political recruitment method, political dynasty can be divided into three types: an oligarchy-meritocratic political dynasty as shown in Golkar Party, a transactional political dynasty as shown in PAN, and a pragmatic political dynasty as shown in the case of Democratic Party. Fourth, , a combination between an oligarchic and elitist mechanism of political recruitment and a proportional electoral system with majority votes will strengthen the political dynasty. Fifth, there is a reciprocal influence between political party institutionalization and political dynasty where a weak political party institutionalization strengthens political dynasty and strong political dynasty weakens political party institutionalization. Sixth, , the age and the line of the political dynasty will affect the quality of the politicians from political dynasty. Several theoretical implications of this dissertation are 1). Robert Michels’ Oligarchy Theory is a relevant tool to analyze political recruitment in South Sulawesi, but his theory that conveys that oligarchy is affected by the development process of the organization is not relevant because oligarchy in a political party is developed at the early of a party building where culture plays an essential factor. 2). O’Dwyer’s theory which states that a weak institutionalization in a political party encourages the creation of a political patronage is verified in the case of PAN and Democratic Party. Yet, there is a reciprocal correlation between institutionalization process in a political party and political patronage where the latter also affects the weakening of institutionalization process as shown in the case of Golkar. 3). A theory stating that political socialization influences the quality of the candidates is verified in this dissertation, however, the socialization does not influence the identification of a political party as it is more pragmatic by nature.
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