BUREAUCRACY CULTURE AND LEADERSHIP IN INDONESIAN E-ADMINISTRATION IMPLEMENTATION: BASED ON PERSPECTIVE OF KNOWING AND LEARNING ORGANIZATION
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Indonesian E-administration implementation involves bureaucratic culture and leadership issues. Those issues appear due to the change that occurs if e-administration is implemented nationally. Implementing ea dministration can be risky, expensive and difficuli The change is inevitable for effective and efficient e-administration implementation, and to gain its benefits. Patrimonial bureaucracy culture in Indonesia should be reformed into a situation that is more dynamic and transparent; moreover, there should be a sharing of information processes among government agencies. The patrimonial type of Indonesian bureaucracy is an inherent factor in the Indonesian political system in the new regime era. Historically, that situation is caused by the influence of traditional values from Indonesian ancient kingdoms and a colonial style of bureaucracy (Dutch invasion era). Moreover, Indonesian bureaucracy is still focused on social control and serving superior orientations rather than service orientation. Those values are still occurring in Indonesian bureaucracy in some areas, even though Tndonesia is in the reform era. In this reform era, the Indonesian government’s bureaucracy still has not changed significantly. it is reflected in the government’s capacity to serve the public. For example, behavior patterns of bureaucrats in Banten, Yogyakarta, West Sumatra, and South Sulawesi still show a low level of accountability, responsiveness, and efficiency in giving the service to the public. En sum, public service quality is still at a low level. Public employees are not being motivated to improve and provide policy about ICT when there is a need of e-leadership due to the marn characteristic of Indonesia’s paternalistic culture. This situation causes a 69) lack of policy induding operational guides at every level of government to relat: improve ICt Because of the situation, when there is no role model in govei electronic leadership, bureaucrats working under leaders are not motivated to ihc to improve and provide policies in electronic development. The paternalistic succe Indonesian culture makes bureaucracy unmotivated and provides electronic policies when there is not e-leadership. Indonesia needs a nationally strate committed leader to e-administration implementation, in order that there syster is bureaucratic support for the use of IT and there is ICT policy improvement. supp Improvement of ICT literacy and skill is needed in Indonesia’s e- 20 administration implementation. Its improvement in committed leadership mcan to the improvement of e-administration and the ability of controlling and and bi managing c-administration implementation in Indonesia’s bureaucracy will i enhance c-administration effectiveness. This paper will analyze those factors affect regarding the organization’s paradigms: organization as learning and challer knowing organization.