ISLAMIC CHARITIES AND SOCIAL ACTIVISM
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Throughout the text I have used the system of translation adopted in the International Journal of Middle East Studies, but diacritics have been reduced for simplification. The names of people and organisations, as well as the titles of books, journals and articles, have been rendered as locally spelled and transliterated. For the plural forms of Arabic words, I simply add an ‘s’, but for the plural forms of Arabic words which have been adopted in Bahasa Indonesia, I do not add an ‘s’. The words ‘ulama, madrasah, and da’i can be singular or plural. There are also some Arabic and Indonesian terms that may be used interchangeably, such as da’wa and dakwah, sadaqa and sedekah, Shari’a and Syari’ah, and so forth. For the translation of the Qur’anic verses, I employed Abdullah Yusuf Ali’s The Meaning of the Holy Qur’an (New Edition with Revised Translation and Commentary, 1991).